At Purity Coffee we make every decision based on health first. We use the latest scientific research to optimize how we source, test, roast and deliver our coffees.
We begin with these fundamental baseline standards from which we develop additional standards as the science presents new information.
- Certified organic and tested free of pesticides and other contaminants
- Rainforest Alliance Certified for environmental and social standards
- Specialty grade for exceptional taste and highest quality beans
- Regeneratively and/or biodynamically farmed for sustainability
We continue to look for the best coffees and we’re always researching ways to make our coffee even healthier. The deeper we go, the more we understand that coffee is extremely complex, and various beneficial compounds can be created and destroyed at different roast levels.
Purity FLOW is our original medium roast.
Purity FLOW is our original coffee formulated for all-around health. When we began Purity Coffee, we sought to create the single most healthy coffee. We have spent years improving our flagship blend by developing close, direct connections with four producers who are committed to regenerative, organic farming and by lab testing the coffees not only to ensure they were free of contaminants like mold and mycotoxins, but to measure levels of coffee’s most beneficial compounds like antioxidants (chlorogenic acids-CGA and lactones-CGL), trigonelline and nutrients, as well as caffeine.
Within the feedback from over 18,000 customers, there are thousands of Purity drinkers who say they think better, perform better and feel better when they drink Purity. We aspire for everyone to have this feeling of being in a pure energy state that opens you up to more magic, creativity and flow state to happen. We understand FLOW as the optimal state for channeling our life energies and performing at our best. We have embarked on a mission to understand what makes Purity Coffee help people get into flow.
Below we have summarized the health benefits of coffee found in the scientific literature; however, please keep in mind that “coffee” is usually studied as just a general product. We believe that Purity Coffee’s integrated approach (healthy environments, plants and people) produces coffees significantly better for you: Specialty grade, certified organic, high CGA, Rainforest Alliance®, Smithsonian Bird Friendly®, biodynamic and regeneratively farmed coffees have health benefits that are amplified.
What creates flow? We continue to research and lab test for particular bioactive compounds in our coffees, which scientists believe provide antioxidant support and anti-inflammatory activity for overall good health. However, one thing we do understand is that healthy, organic specialty coffees, roasted mindfully to maintain the most valuable compounds, in their entire combinations of compounds are more powerful than selected, extracted components.
What knocks you out of flow? The jitters. Stomach issues. Sluggishness. Caffeine crashes. Purity Coffee eliminates the causes that prevent you from feeling flow: mold, mycotoxins, certain biogenic amines, toxic pesticides/herbicides/fertilizers and other contaminants.
Purity Flow is formulated for:
Physical and mental performance
Increased mental focus
What we do with FLOW
Purity FLOW comes from our direct relationships with producers in Nicaragua, Honduras and Colombia. The coffee is fully traceable, which is important. One myth in coffee is that a “single origin” coffee is of higher quality than a blend. Blends that are not traceable are of concern (food products should be fully traceable for food safety and security reasons). The point of a single origin coffee is to be traceable and for the consumer to be able to enjoy the story of the farm along with tasting and identifying flavors of the terroir, cultivar and processing methods the producer employed.
Because Purity is focused on health and safety, we can fully trace our coffees, but identifying nuances of flavor is secondary to identifying the high levels of antioxidants and nutrients our producers have developed… which also happens to make the coffee taste exceptionally good. In addition, blending allows us to continually receive fresh coffees from our farms, because they are on different crop cycles. We believe this is healthier than relying on single origins which come in once a year—by the end of the year the green coffee has begun to lose its organic matter, but our coffees do not get to that age. Our coffees are special in that they are continually coming in fresh throughout the year.
We have a precise roasting curve for each of our coffees and Purity FLOW has been refined over the years to create a balanced coffee that retains maximum CGA. Because CGA and the coffee’s natural acidity decline the longer the coffee is roasted, we found the roast level “sweet spot” that also makes it easy on the stomach without going too dark.
What the Science Says: Health Benefits of Coffee
Coffee is one of nature’s most multifaceted food products, made more complex by the expansive number of cultivars (hundreds) grown in diverse environments (from Mexico to Brazil, from Burundi to Sumatra) under different conditions (altitudes, latitudes, temperatures, rainfall, soil types) and then processed in diverse ways (washed, natural, and all the processes in between). All of these factors impact the chemical compounds in the final raw coffee seed (“bean” -- it’s really a seed). Furthermore, the choices the roaster makes to apply varying amounts of heat throughout the roast cause the chemical compounds to change in an incalculable number of ways. Finally, the methods used to brew coffee can extract different compounds in the coffee in different amounts.
Beneficial Compounds and the Enteric Nervous System
The deeper we go, the more we understand that coffee is extremely complex, and various beneficial compounds can be created and destroyed at different roast levels. However, there are other key compounds that have been studied (and many more to discover) and impact many parts of the body that are involved with performing at one’s best, not just the brain.
In addition to other organs like the brain, liver and heart, compounds in coffee have been shown to have bioactivity in the gut, most notably in studies on protection against colon cancer. There is more to the gut than just digestion: The past 40 years have brought to light that the enteric nervous system has a major impact on “emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Recent advances in research have described the importance of gut microbiota in influencing these interactions…” (Carabotti et al. 2015). The following compounds are significant in coffee and overall health, particularly in the brain and the gut, where coffee serves as a food for beneficial microbiota and immune system support (Sales & Farah, 2020):
- Chlorogenic Acids (CGA) and their lactones (CGL) have antioxidant activity, and anti-opioid activity, are hypoglycemic, and have potentially positive effects on brain function. CGA is absorbed with no structural change in the small intestine and has demonstrated prebiotic activity. (Sales et al. 2020)
- CGA and polysaccharides, particularly galactomannan and type 2 arabinogalactan promote the growth of certain strains of probiotic bacteria, but not the growth of pathogenic microorganisms like E. coli. Coffee consumption can selectively improve the growth of probiotics and other beneficial strains, thus exerting a prebiotic effect, and different strains utilize different coffee components to grow. (Sales et al. 2020)
- Coffee Melanoidins: The beneficial microbiota in the gut stimulate the immune system, and melanoidins together with coffee’s other compounds stimulate the growth of these beneficial microbiota and probiotics, serving as dietary fiber and as prebiotics. They may also contribute to reducing the risk of colon cancer. (Steiner et al. 2020)
- Trigonelline and Niacin (vitamin B3): Trigonelline is involved with cellular antioxidant processes . It has also been shown to have inhibitory effect against certain enterobacteria strains and high antibacterial activity to several other microorganisms, including cariogenic microorganisms and pathogens related to periodontal disease. (da Silva et al. 2014)
These are just a few highlighted compounds for this review—many more have been and are being studied by scientists actively.
Chlorogenic Acids (CGA) and the Brain
CGA can be found in abundance in many fruits, including coffee, which is one of the primary delivery methods of polyphenols in peoples’ diets — some people may shy away from fruits and vegetables, but they drink coffee habitually and often multiple times throughout the day.
The amount of CGA in any given coffee depends significantly on plant nutrition, growing conditions, cultivar, processing and roasting. At Purity Coffee we seek out arabica coffees that are highest in CGA and then work to retain them throughout the supply chain and during roasting, where a significant amount of CGA is lost. The darker the coffee, the less CGA content will be in the final brew.
Despite CGA being the major bioactive compounds in coffee, the effects of CGA and their derivative lactones on the brain, cognition and mood have only picked up speed for investigation in the past couple of decades. Studies have shown that CGA and their CGL are bioavailable and CGL can enter in brain tissue (de Paulis et al. 2014). CGA lactones in roasted coffee have displayed antioxidant and significant neuroprotective properties in tests of cellular degeneration and death of neurons subjected to oxidative stress (Chuet al. 2009).
Oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases (and others) and to some behaviors, such as anxiety and depression. In particular, recent research observed a close relationship between oxidative stress and anxiety, there are reports of behavioral effects of CGA including the demonstration that CGA and/or its derivatives reduce anxiety-related behavior (Bouayedet al. 2007) and improve spatial learning and memory (Han et al. 2011).
While the mechanism by which CGA impacts the brain isn’t completely understood, “About ⅓ of consumed chlorogenic acids are absorbed in the small intestine and the remaining amount is partly absorbed in the large intestine” as metabolites (Sales& Farah 2020). Those that reach the large intestine will get metabolized by the gut microbiota, although the impact of that interaction is yet to be completely understood. Much more is left to learn on how this could impact our microbiota and the connection between our enteric nervous system and the central nervous system.
One important note on CGA: The major CGA compounds present in coffee are absorbed and/or metabolized in humans at different rates and quantities, with a large inter-individual variation. (Monteiro, Farah, et al. 2007)
Coffee and Major Health Matters
Coffee’s impact on chronic diseases has been studied for decades, and the growing body of research continues to astound us as new compounds in coffee are discovered in green (raw) coffee and from the thermodynamic results of roasting. Key topics in health include coffee’s impact on:
- Life Expectancy
- Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke
- Alzheimer's, Parkinsons, and Depression
- Certain Cancers
- Metabolism and Performance
- Type II Diabetes
- DNA Protection
- Weight Management
- Gut Health
- Antimicrobial Activity, Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease
There have been thousands of scientific papers and dozens of books on these topics, which are included in the citations at the end of this page, but here are some highlights:
- Drinking coffee, even one cup per day, was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular, infectious and digestive diseases, according to the “Takayamo study,” by Michiyo Yamakawa and others. They tracked over 31,500 people for more than 14 years and showed that even one cup of coffee was associated with a 16% lower risk of all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular, infectious and digestive diseases. Subjects who drank 2-3 cups of coffee a day showed the highest results at 19% lower risk. (Yamakawa et al. 2019)
- Several countries have published epidemiological research showing the association between coffee and lower risk of mortality from all causes over a similar period of time. Interestingly, both the Japanese and European studies reported relationships between coffee drinking and lower mortality from digestive diseases.
- In 2015, a study with 133,000 subjects showed that 3-5 cups a day reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 15%; (Ding et al. 2015)
- In 10 European countries and half a million subjects, research showed a decrease in mortality of around 12%, (Gunter et al. 2017)
- In 2017 a study among non-white populations showed 2-3 cups decreased all-cause mortality by 18%. (Park et al. 2017)
- Several countries have published epidemiological research showing the association between coffee and lower risk of mortality from all causes over a similar period of time. Interestingly, both the Japanese and European studies reported relationships between coffee drinking and lower mortality from digestive diseases.
Note: Please see Purity PROTECT for a more detailed review.
- A study that spanned 22 years with results first published in 1992 (updated in 2006) included 125,580 people from all ethnic backgrounds who volunteered information about their health habits voluntarily through their insurance plans. The statistics overwhelmingly indicated a correlation between coffee drinking and freedom from liver cirrhosis:
- Cirrhosis is a late-stage liver disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue and the liver is permanently damaged. Scar tissue keeps your liver from working properly. People who drank alcohol heavily reduced their chances of getting cirrhosis by 40% by drinking 2 cups of coffee per day, and by 80% if they drank 4 cups per day. It appeared that, for alcoholic liver disease, coffee could impact the rate at which the disease progressed and could even work to reduce damage. (Klatsky et al. 2006)
- A 2001 study showed an 84% lower risk of developing liver cirrhosis for those drinking more than four cups per day. From 1994 to 1998, researchers recruited all the consecutive inpatients admitted with liver cirrhosis in 19 hospitals. After analyzing lifestyle issues and viral status, they observed a statistically significant trend toward lowered cirrhosis risk with increasing exposure to coffee. The liver cirrhosis odds ratios decreased in a dose-dependent way from 1 to 4 or more cups of coffee drinkers. They also identified that it was coffee, but not other beverages containing caffeine, which may inhibit the onset of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis. (Corrao, et al. 2001)
- Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) cause a decrease in immune and inflammatory markers in the liver.(Farah 2008, 2012, 2018)
- Cirrhosis is a late-stage liver disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue and the liver is permanently damaged. Scar tissue keeps your liver from working properly.
- A study followed 90,000 Japanese subjects over ten years and concluded that coffee drinkers have half the risk of developing liver cancer as non-coffee drinkers. This effect was observed for those who drank just one to two cups daily with the effect increasing at three to four cups. (Inoue et al. 2005 )
Type II Diabetes
- According to Dr. Rob Van Dam of Harvard School of Public Health, the numerous studies on coffee and diabetes have been remarkably consistent – people drinking more coffee have a lower risk of diabetes. He noted, “It’s hard to imagine another factor that coffee drinkers have that would be so effective.”
- Meta-analyses of 28 different studies–which included 1,109,272 participants from the U.S., Europe, and Asia, as well as 45,335 cases of type 2 diabetes–saw a strong inverse relationship between the amount of coffee people drank and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Participants who drank six cups of coffee per day had a 33% lower risk of developing the disease compared to participants who drank no coffee at all. (Ding et al. 2014)
- Changing the amount of coffee can increase or decrease your risk of diabetes, according to another study. Findings showed that participants who increased coffee intake by more than one cup per day over a four-year period decreased their risk by 11%. On the other hand, the opposite turned out to be true as well! People who decreased the amount of coffee they drank over that four-year period actually raised their diabetes risk by 17%. (Bhupathiraju et al. 2014)
- A 2021 post on the American Heart Association website highlighted research from 3 large heart disease studies that showed that drinking one or more cups of caffeinated coffee was associated with decreased heart failure risk.
- A 15-year study followed almost 42,000 postmenopausal women between the ages of 55–69 in relation to coffee drinking and mortality from diseases with a major inflammatory component, including cardiovascular disease. They concluded, “Consumption of coffee, a major source of dietary antioxidants, may inhibit inflammation and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases in postmenopausal women.” (Andersen et al. 2006)
- A large cohort from the US Nurses’ Health Study of 83,076 female participants, which was followed over 24 years, observed a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and the incidence of stroke. Interestingly authors concluded that coffee consumption may modestly reduce the risk of stroke in women. (Lopez-Garcia et al. 2009)
- "Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cognitive decline, dementia, and AD. The strongest case for the protective effects of coffee was made by Eskelinen et al., who reported a 65% risk reduction for late-life dementia and AD among drinkers of 3-5 cups of coffee or tea/day during their middle life, compared with nondrinkers." (Miller & Shukitt-Hale 2012)
At the end of each of our chromosomes, we have special sequences of DNA, called telomeres. Many people compare them to the plastic end of a shoelace – they are there to hold things together and keep the laces from unraveling. Telomeres act to protect the DNA in the chromosomes. Each time cells divide, their telomere is shortened until at some point they are completely degraded. Also, shortened, aged telomeres are associated with a variety of adverse health effects.
- In a landmark study with almost 5000 participants published in 2016, Jason J Liu and colleagues from the National Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard School of Public Health found a link between coffee consumption and telomere length. They found that compared with non-coffee drinkers, those who drank 2 to 3 and more than 3 cups of coffee per day, respectively, had 1.29 and 1.36 times the odds of having longer telomere length.
- A study of 40 chronic hepatitis C patients found that telomere length was significantly longer (as much as 40% longer in 89% of study participants) in patients who consumed 4 cups of coffee per day for 30 days. (Cardin)
- Researchers saw that oxidative DNA damage led to telomere shortening, which is linked to chromosomal instability. They demonstrated in vivo that coffee consumption induced a reduction in oxidative damage, and that was correlated with increased telomere length. These findings strongly indicate that coffee has positive effects on oxidative DNA damage. (Rudolph et al. 2009)
As with many coffee studies, the investigators look to see if it is coffee or the caffeine in coffee that impacts the results. One investigation evaluated the relationship between caffeine intake, coffee consumption and telomere length in over 5800 adults. Astonishingly, results suggest that non-coffee caffeine use accounts for shorter telomeres in U.S. adults, independent of numerous covariates, whereas coffee predicts longer telomeres. (Tucker 2017)
Of course, caffeine is the compound most often associated with coffee, especially in relation to mental acuity. All too often coffee is simply equated to caffeine with many people feeling that it is the only compound that matters. However, at Purity we like to say often that coffee is much more than just a caffeine fix. We know, though, that many people drink coffee for the effect of caffeine on their alertness, but caffeine does have additional health benefits.
Caffeine is a much-debated compound, and it would be difficult to provide a thorough discussion of caffeine here. Caffeine is an alkaloid found in leaves, seeds, and fruits of coffee, cocoa, cola, guarana and tea plants. Within 10 minutes of drinking coffee, the stomach and first part of the intestine absorb the caffeine, and it reaches the maximum concentration in the bloodstream within about an hour. However, everyone has their own unique tolerance to caffeine. Factors such as genetics, body chemistry and caffeine-consuming habits indicate whether someone is a “fast metabolizer” or “slow metabolizer” of caffeine. (Tan et al. 2007)
In some cases there are medications with which caffeine interacts (particularly anti-epileptic meds). Those severely affected by caffeine should avoid coffee and even decaf, but if you simply have a low tolerance for caffeine, we recommend trying Purity CALM, which is 99.9% caffeine free, to get health benefits from coffee.
We must not discount caffeine as a compound that has pharmacological properties. Caffeine acts as an antagonist of adenosine receptors in humans (it blocks the receptors)—adenosine interacts with specific cell receptors, most noticeably inhibiting neural activity and causing drowsiness. This reduction in adenosine activity leads to increased activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate (Nehlig 2018).
There is also evidence that caffeine, as an adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces pain. It is well known in the medical field that it produces adjuvant analgesic properties when in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen (Tylenol) and has been also shown to affect nerves in the body (Sawynok 1998). In this way, caffeine may also reduce the sensations of pain associated with muscle work or physical activity (Davis et al. 2003).
Caffeine and Performance
There is a lot of evidence and many scientific studies to back up that caffeine ingestion improves endurance sports performance. Recent research concludes that caffeine affects endurance performance through its antagonist effect on adenosine receptors in the brain (Davis). These studies show a pretty consistent benefit in endurance exercise by decreasing perceived exertion and increasing time to exhaustion (Keisler and Armsey 2006). In a large review considering 21 studies on this topic, the amount of caffeine commonly shown to improve endurance performance was between 3 and 6 mg·kg-1 body mass (Ganio et al. 2009).
A review of studies on endurance performance in 2016 included 9 studies that specified the effect of caffeine in coffee. They noted significant improvements in endurance performance in five of nine studies, which were on average 24.2% over controls for time-to-exhaustion trials. They suggested that there was moderate evidence supporting the use of coffee as an aid to improve performance in both endurance cycling and running sports (Higgins et al. 2016). This much (over 20%) of a performance enhancement is much larger than the usual margins reported in caffeine studies and is definitely worth further investigation.
Preclinical studies conducted by Arendash et al. (2009)demonstrated that giving caffeine in the daily diet to mutation transgenic mice, starting in young adulthood, results in cognitive protection in various tests across multiple cognitive domains, such as spatial learning, memory, identification, strategy switching, and working memory. All of these attributes are related to the feeling of flow.
Purity Coffee® FLOW Certificates of Analysis
Click the links below to view the lab results for PROTECT. Results are based upon 15g of roasted & ground coffee, which is equal to the recommended amount used for brewing one 8 oz cup of coffee.
Citations and Studies Which Support Our Views
- Alharbi WDM, Azmat A, Ahmed M. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33(4):1203-1210.
- American Heart Association, https://newsroom.heart.org/news/coffee-lovers-rejoice-drinking-more-coffee-associated-with-decreased-heart-failure-risk. 2021. “Coffee lovers, rejoice! Drinking more coffee associated with decreased heart failure risk.”
- Andersen LF, Jacobs DR, Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R. Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women’s Health Study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 83, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 1039–1046.
- Antonio AG, Moraes RS, Perrone D, Maia LC, Santos KRN, Iórioand NLP, Farah A. Species, roast degree and decaffeination influence the antibacterial activity of coffee against Streptococcus mutans, FoodChem, 2010, 118, 78286.
- Arendash GW, Schleif W, Rezai-Zadeh K, Jackson EK, Zacharia LC, Cracchiolo JR, Shippy D, Tan J. Caffeine protects Alzheimer's mice against cognitive impairment and reduces brain beta-amyloid production. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):941-52.
- Arendash GW, Mori T, Cao C, Mamcarz M, Runfeldt M, Dickson A, Rezai-Zadeh K, Tane J, Citron BA, Lin X, Echeverria V, Potter H. Caffeine reverses cognitive impairment and decreases brain amyloid-beta levels in aged Alzheimer's disease mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17(3):661-80.
- Astorino TA ,Terzi MN, Roberson DW, Burnett TR. Effect of Caffeine Intake on Pain Perception During High-Intensity Exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2011 21 27-32.
- Astuti Y, Wardhana A, Watkins J, Wulaningsih W. Cigarette smoking and telomere length: A systematic review of 84 studies and meta-analysis. Environmental Research 2017 158 480-489.
- Azuma K, Ippoushi K, Nakayama M, Ito H, Higashio H, Terao J. Absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in rats after oral administration. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5496–500.
- Balan E, Decottignies A, Deldicque L. Physical Activity and Nutrition: Two Promising Strategies for Telomere Maintenance? Nutrients 2018 10.
- Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Manson JE, Willett WC, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Changes in coffee intake and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: three large cohorts of US men and women. 2014 Jul;57(7):1346-54.
- Bouayed J, Rammal H, Dicko A, Younos C, Soulimani R. Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol from Prunus domestica (Mirabelle), with coupled anxiolytic and antioxidant effects. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Nov 15;262(1-2):77-84.
- Caffeine and metabolism. Coffee & Health website. https://www.coffeeandhealth.org/topic-overview/caffeine-and-metabolism/.
- Camfield DA, Silber BY, Scholey AB, Nolidin K, Goh A, Stough C. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to differentiate the acute cognitive and mood effects of chlorogenic acid from decaffeinated coffee. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82897. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082897
- Caprioli G, Cortese M, Sagratini G, Vittori S. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015;66(5):505-513.
- Carabotti M, Scirocco A, Maselli MA, Severi C. The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems. Annals Gastroenterol. 2015;28(2):203-209.
- Cardin R, Piciocchi M, Martines D, Scribano L, Petracco M, Farinati F. Effects of coffee consumption in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized controlled trial. Digestive and Liver Disease 2013 45 499-504.
- Cawthon RM, Smith KR, O'Brien E, Sivatchenko A, Kerber RA. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. (Research letters). The Lancet 2003.
- Chakraborti S, Mandal M, Das S, Mandal A, Chakraborti T (2003). Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases: an overview. Mol Cell Biochem;253:269–85.
- Chang KL, Ho PC (2014) Gas Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-Based Metabolomics for Comparison of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Its Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease. PLoS ONE 9(8): e104621.
- Chu YF, Brown PH, Lyle BJ, Chen Y, Black RM, Williams CE, Lin YC, Hsu CW, Cheng IH. Roasted coffees high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones are more neuroprotective than green coffees. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 28;57(20):9801-8.
- Chu YF, Chang WH, Black RM, Liu JR, Sompol P, et al. 2012. Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid beta(1–42) levels in an Alzheimer’s mouse model. Food Chem 135: 2095–2102.
- Corrao G, Zambon A, Bagnardi V, D'Amicis A, Klatsky A; Collaborative SIDECIR Group. Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of liver cirrhosis. Annals of Epidemiol. 2001 Oct;11(7):458-65. doi: 10.1016/s1047-2797(01)00223-x.
- Cropley V, Croft R, Silber B, et al. Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219(3):737-749.
- Csikszentmihalyi M, Larson R, Validity and reliability of the experience sampling method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 175, 526, 1987.
- Da Silva FM, Iorio NLP, Lobo LA, dos Santos KRN, Farah A, Maia L, Antonio AG. 2014. Antibacterial effect of aqueous extracts and bioactive chemical compounds of Coffea canephora against microorganisms involved in dental caries and periodontal disease, Adv. , 4, 987.
- Darrow SM, Verhoeven JE, Revesz D, Lindqvist D, Penninx BW, Delucchi KL, Wolkowitz OM, Mathews CA. The Association Between Psychiatric Disorders and Telomere Length: A Meta-Analysis Involving 14,827 Persons. Psychosom Med 2016 78 776-87.
- Davis JM, Zhao Z, Stock HS,Mehl KA, Buggy J, Hand GA. Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2003 284 R399-R404.
- de Paulis T, Schmidt DE, Bruchey AK, Kirby MT, McDonald MP, Commers P, Lovinger DM, Martin PR. 2002. Dicinnamoylquinides in roasted coffee inhibit the human adenosine transporter. Eur J Pharmacol 442:215–223.
- Denham J, O’Brien BJ, Charchar FJ. Telomere Length Maintenance and Cardio-Metabolic Disease Prevention Through Exercise Training. Sports Medicine 2016 46 1213-1237.
- Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Chen M, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2014;37:569-86.
- Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Longterm coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation 2014;129:643-59.
- Ding M, Satija A, Bhupathiraju SN, Hu Y, Sun Q, Han J, Lopez-Garcia E, Willett W, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in 3 Large Prospective Cohorts. 2015 Dec 15;132(24):2305-15.
- Duarte G, Farah A. Effect of Simultaneous Consumption of Milk and Coffee on Chlorogenic Acids’ Bioavailability in Humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2011 59 (14), 7925-7931. DOI: 10.1021/jf201906p
- Ellis GD, Witt PA, Facilitating flow through therapeutic recreation services. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 17, 6, 1983.
- Farah A editor (2019). Volume 1 - Coffee: Production, Quality and Chemistry. Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Farah A, de Paulis T, Moreira DP, Trugo LC, Martin PR. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jan 25;54(2):374-81.
- Farah A, Monteiro M, Donangelo CM, Lafay S. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans. J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2309-15.
- Farah A, Coffee constituents, In Y-F Chu Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention, Wiley-Blackwell,2012
- Farah A. Nutritional and health effects of coffee, In P. Lashermes, Achieving sustainable cultivation of coffee,Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, United States, 2018.
- Farah A, de Paulis T, Trugo LC, Martin PR. Effect of roasting on the formation of chlorogenic acid lactones in coffee. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1505-13.
- Fasching CL. Telomere length measurement as a clinical biomarker of aging and disease. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 2018 55 443-465.
- FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). Spilling the beans: How much caffeine is too much? FDA website. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/spilling-beans-how-much-caffeine-too-much. Updated December 12, 2018.
- Francis T, Revising therapeutic recreation for substance misuse: Incorporating flow technology in alternatives treatment. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 25, 41, 1991.
- Freedman ND, Everhart JE, Lindsay KL, Ghany MG, Curto TM, Shiffman ML, Lee WM, Lok AS, Di Bisceglie AM, Bonkovsky HL, Hoefs JC, Dienstag JL, Morishima C, Abnet CC, Sinha R. 2009. Coffee intake is associated with lower rates of liver disease progression in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 50, 1360–1369.
- Freedman ND, Park Y, Abnet CC, Hollenbeck AR, Sinha R. Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 2012 366 1891-1904.
- Freitas-Simoes TM, Ros E, Sala-Vila A. Telomere length as a biomarker of accelerated aging: is it influenced by dietary intake? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 2018 21 430-436.
- Furness JB, Callaghan BP, Rivera LR, Cho HJ. The enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal innervation: integrated local and central control. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;817:39-71.
- Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM., Effect of Caffeine on Sport-Specific Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2009, 23.
- Giuffrè M, Moretti R, Campisciano G, da Silveira ABM, Monda VM, Comar M, Di Bella S, Antonello RM, Luzzati R, Crocè LS. You Talking to Me? Says the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) to the Microbe. How Intestinal Microbes Interact with the ENS. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(11):3705.
- Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, et al. Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: a dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol 2016; 31:1191-205.
- Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Cross AJ, Dossus L, Dartois L, Fagherazzi G, Kaaks R, Kühn T, Boeing H, Aleksandrova K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, Larsen SC, Redondo Cornejo ML, Agudo A, Sánchez Pérez MJ, Altzibar JM, Navarro C, Ardanaz E, Khaw KT, Butterworth A, Bradbury KE, Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Grioni S, Vineis P, Panico S, Tumino R, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Siersema P, Leenders M, Beulens JWJ, Uiterwaal CU, Wallström P, Nilsson LM, Landberg R, Weiderpass E, Skeie G, Braaten T, Brennan P, Licaj I, Muller DC, Sinha R, Wareham N, Riboli E. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Aug 15;167(4):236-247. doi: 10.7326/M16-2945. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
- Haggard LM, Williams DR, Identity affirmation through leisure activities: Leisure symbols of the self. Journal of Leisure Research 24, 1, 1992.
- Hamilton JA, Haier RJ, Buchsbaum MS, Intrinsic enjoyment and boredom coping scales: Validation with personality, evoked potential and attention measures. Personality and individual differences 5, 183, 1984.
- Han J, Miyamae Y, Shigemori H, Isoda H (2010) Neuroprotective effect of 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid on SH-SY5Y cells and senescence-accelerated-prone mice 8 through the up-regulation of phosphoglycerate kinase-1. Neuroscience 169:1039–1045
- Haskell-Ramsay CF, Jackson PA, Forster JS, Dodd FL, Bowerbank SL, Kennedy DO. The acute effects of caffeinated black coffee on cognition and mood in healthy young and older adults. 2018;10(10):E1386.
- Higdon JV, Frei B. Coffee and Health: A Review of Recent Human Research, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2006, 46:2, 101-123,
- Higgins S, Straight CR, Lewis RD. The Effects of Pre-exercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2016, 26, 221-239.
- Huber WW, Rossmanith W, Grusch M, Haslinger E, Prustomerskya S, Peter-Vörösmarty B, Parzefall W, Scharf G, Schulte-Hermann R (2008). Effects of coffee and its chemopreventive components kahweol and cafestol on cytochrome P450 and sulfotransferase in rat liver. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46, 1230–1238.
- Huber WW, Scharf G, Rossmanith W, Prustomersky S, Grasl-Kraupp B, Peter B, Turesky RJ, Schulte-Hermann R (2002). The coffee components kahweol and cafestol induce -glutamylcysteinesynthetase, the rate limiting enzyme of chemoprotective glutathione synthesis, in several organs of the rat. Toxicol., 75, 685–694.
- Inoue M, Yoshimi I, Sobue T, Tsugane S. 2005. Influence of Coffee Drinking on Subsequent Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Prospective Study in Japan. J Natl Cancer Inst;97:293-300.
- Jang ES, Jeong SH, Lee SH et al. 2013. The effect of coffee consumption on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus endemic area. Liver Int.; 33: 1092–9.
- Jiang X, Zhang D, Jiang W. Coffee and caffeine intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr 2014;53:25-38.
- Jiménez KM, Pereira-Morales AJ, Adan A, Forero DA. Telomere length and childhood trauma in Colombians with depressive symptoms. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 2019 41 194-198.
- Jung S, Kim MH, Park JH, Jeong Y, Ko KS. Cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts with different roasting levels. J Med Food. 2017;20(6):626-635.
- Keisler BD, Armsey TD. Caffeine As an Ergogenic Aid. 2006, p 215.
- Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Buchanan R, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of cirrhosis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 562-574, 43, 5, 0269-2813.
- Kim, H., Kang, S.H., Kim, S.H. et al. Drinking coffee enhances neurocognitive function by reorganizing brain functional connectivity. Sci Rep 11, 14381 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93849-7
- Klatsky A L, Armstrong M A (1992). Alcohol, Smoking, coffee, and cirrhosis. J. Epidemiol., 136, 1248–1257.
- Klatsky AL, Morton C, Udaltsova N, Friedman GD (2006). Coffee, cirrhosis and transaminase enzymes. Intern. Med., 166, 1190–1195.
- Kleiber D, Larson R, Csikszentmihalyi M, The experience of leisure in adolescence. Journal of leisure Research18, 169, 1986.
- Larson R, Mannell R, Zuzanek J, Daily well-being of older adults with friends and family. Psychology and Aging1, 117, 1986.
- Li X, Wang J, Zhou J, Huang P, Li J. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and shorter telomere length: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 2017 218 322-326.
- Li Z, He Y, Wang D, Tang J, Chen X. Association between childhood trauma and accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2017 93 64-71.
- Liu JJ, Crous-Bou M, Giovannucci E, De Vivo I. Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Nurses' Health Study. Journal of Nutrition 2016 146 1373-1378.
- Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Graubard BI, Guertin KA, Black A, Huang WY, Shebl FM, Mayne ST, Sinha R. Association of Coffee Consumption With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 2015 182 1010-22.
- Lopez-Garcia E, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Rexrode KM, Logroscino G, Hu FB, van Dam RM. 2009. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Circulation, 119(8), 1116-1123.
- Mackenzie T, Brooks B, O'Connor G. Beverage intake, diabetes, and glucose control of adults in America. Annals of Epidemiol. 2006 Sep;16(9):688-91.
- Mansour A, Mohajeri-Tehrani MR, Karimi S, et al. Short term effects of coffee components consumption on gut microbiota in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver and diabetes: A pilot randomized placebo-controlled, clinical trial. EXCLI J. 2020;19:241-250. Published 2020 Mar 2.
- Massimini F, Csikszentmihalyi M, Carli M, The monitoring of optimal experience: A tool for psychiatric rehabilitation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases175, 545, 1987,
- Matboli M, Shafei A, Ali M, Kamal KM, Noah M, Lewis P, Habashy A, Ehab M, Gaber AI, Abdelzaher H. Emerging role of nutrition and the non-coding landscape in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review of literature. Gene 2018 675 54-61.
- Miller MG, Shukitt-Hale B. 2012. Chapter 4: Coffee and Alzheimer’s Disease: Animal and Cellular Evidence in Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention, Yi-Fang Chu (Editor).
- Monteiro M, Farah A, Perrone D, Trugo LC, Donangelo C. Chlorogenic acid compounds from coffee are differentially absorbed and metabolized in humans. J Nutr. 2007 Oct;137(10):2196-201.
- Mundstock E, Sarria EE, Zatti H, Mattos Louzada F, KichGrun L, Herbert Jones M, Guma FTCR, Mazzola J, Epifanio M, Stein RT, Barbé-Tuana FM, Mattiello R. Effect of obesity on telomere length: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity 2015 23 2165-2174.
- Muraki K, Nyhan K, Han L, Murnane J. Mechanisms of telomere loss and their consequences for chromosome instability. Frontiers in Oncology 2012 2 135.
- NCA national coffee data trends 2019. National Coffee Association website. https://nationalcoffee.blog/2019/03/09/national-coffee-drinking-trends-2019/. Published March 9, 2019.
- Nehlig A. Interindividual differences in caffeine metabolism and factors driving caffeine consumption. Pharmacol Rev. 2018;70(2):384-411.
- Nettleton JA, Diez-Roux A, Jenny NS, Fitzpatrick AL, Jacobs DR. Jr. Dietary patterns food groups and telomere length in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 88 1405-1412.
- Njajou OT, Hsueh WC, Blackburn EH, Newman AB, Wu SH, Li R, Simonsick EM, Harris TM, Cummings SR, Cawthon RM. Health A. B. C. s. Association between telomere length specific causes of death and years of healthy life in health aging and body composition a population-based cohort study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009 64 860-864.
- Park SY, Freedman ND, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Aug 15;167(4):228-235. doi: 10.7326/M16-2472. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
- Parras P, Martínez-Tomé M, Jiménez AM, Murcia MA. Antioxidant capacity of coffees of several origins brewed following three different procedures. Food Chemistry 2007 102 582-592.
- Pourshahidi LK, Navarini L, Petracco M, Strain JJ. A Comprehensive Overview of the Risks and Benefits of Coffee Consumption. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2016 Jul;15(4):671-684.
- Rafie N, Golpour, Hamedani S, Barak F, Safavi SM, Miraghajani M. Dietary patterns food groups and telomere length: a systematic review of current studies. European Journal Of Clinical Nutrition 2016 71 151.
- Ramos-Tovar E, Muriel P. Hepatoprotective Effect of Coffee.Farah A editor (2019). Volume 2 - Coffee: Consumption and Health Implications. Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Rebello SA, van Dam RM. Coffee consumption and cardiovascular health: getting to the heart of the matter. CurrCardiol Rep. 2013 Oct;15(10):403.
- Rudolph KL, Hartmann D, Opitz OG. Telomere Dysfunction and DNA Damage Checkpoints in Diseases and Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Gastroenterology 2009, 137, 754-762.
- Saab S, Mallam D, Cox G A, & Tong M J (2013). Impact of coffee on liver diseases: a systematic review. Liver International, 34(4), 495–504.
- Sales AL , dePaula J , Mellinger Silva C , Cruz A , Lemos Miguel MA , Farah A . Effects of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) extracts and bioactive compounds on in vitro probiotic bacterial growth. Food Funct. 2020 Feb 26;11(2):1410-1424. doi: 10.1039/c9fo02589h. PMID: 31970371.
- Samdahl D, Analyzing “beeper” data: Statistical considerations for experience sampling studies. Therapeutic Recreation Journal23, 47, 1989.
- Sawynok J. Adenosine receptor activation and nociception. European Journal of Pharmacology 1998, 347, 1-11.
- Shlonsky AK, Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA. Traits of Persons Who Drink Decaffeinated Coffee. Annals of Epidemiology 2003 13 273-279.
- Shukitt-Hale B, Miller MG, Chu YF, Lyle BJ, Joseph JA. 2013. Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging. Age (Dordr) 35: 2183–2192.
- Socała K, Szopa A, Serefko A, Poleszak E, Wlaź P. Neuroprotective Effects of Coffee Bioactive Compounds: A Review. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;22(1):107. Published 2020 Dec 24. doi:10.3390/ijms22010107
- Steiner B, Ferrucci LM, Mirabello L, Lan Q, Hu W, Liao LM, et al. (2020) Association between coffee drinking and telomere length in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. PLoS ONE 15(1): e0226972.
- Tan EK, Chua E, Fook-Chong SM, Teo YY, Yuen Y, Tan L, Zhao Y. Association between caffeine intake and risk of Parkinson's disease among fast and slow metabolizers. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Nov;17(11):1001-5.
- Tang N, Wu Y, Ma J, Wang B, Yu R. Coffee consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Lung Cancer 2010;67:17-22.
- Teilegen A, Atkinson G, Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 83, 268, 1974.
- Tellechea ML, Pirola CJ. The impact of hypertension on leukocyte telomere length: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies. Journal Of Human Hypertension 2016 31 99.
- Terry DF, Nolan VG, Andersen SL, Perls TT, Cawthon R. Association of Longer Telomeres With Better Health in Centenarians. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 2008 63 809-812.
- Tsochatzis EA, Bosch J, Burroughs AK. Liver cirrhosis. Lancet. 2014 May 17;383(9930):1749-61. Epub 2014 Jan 28.
- Tucker LA. Caffeine consumption and telomere length in men and women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Nutrition & Metabolism 2017, 14, 1-10.
- Tucker, L. A., Caffeine consumption and telomere length in men and women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Nutrition & Metabolism 2017, 14, 1-10.
- US Department of Health & Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020: Eighth Edition. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/. Published January 7, 2016.
- Viana AL, Fonseca M, Meireles EL, Duarte SM, Rodrigues MR, et al. 2012. Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 67: 82–87.
- Voelkl JE, Brown BB, Experience sampling in therapeutic recreation research. Therapeutic Recreation Journal23, 35, 1989.
- Voelkl JE, The challenge skill ratio of daily experiences among older adults residing in nursing homes. Therapeutic Recreation Journal24, 7, 1990.
- Weiner B, Russell D, Lerman D, The cognition-emotion process in achievement related contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1211, 1979.
- Weischer M, Bojesen SE, Cawthon RM, Freiberg JJ, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Short telomere length myocardial infarction ischemic heart disease and early death. Arteriosclerosis thrombosis and vascular biology 2012 32 822-9.
- Yamakawa M, Wada K, Goto Y, Mizuta F, Koda S, Uji T, Nagata C. Associations between coffee consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese city: the Takayama study. Public Health Nutr. 2019 Oct;22(14):2561-2568.
- Zeng L, Xiang R, Fu C, Qu Z, Liu C. The Regulatory effect of chlorogenic acid on gut-brain function and its mechanism: A systematic review, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2022;149. doi.org:/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112831